Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been considered as a potential target for development of anticancer therapeutics. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) functions as an allosteric inhibitor of STAT3. 15d-PGJ2 inhibits phosphorylation, dimerization, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activity of STAT3 in H-Ras-transformed human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A-Ras) through the Michael addition reaction at cysteine 259 of STAT3. Comparative studies with 15d-PGJ2 analogues reveal that both C12-C13 and C9-C10 double bonds conjugated to the carbonyl group in the cyclopentenone ring of 15d-PGJ2 are essential for STAT3 binding. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of 15d-PGJ2 in MCF10A-Ras cells are attributable to covalent modification of STAT3 on Cys259, and mimic the effects induced by mutation of this amino acid.
- 15-deoxy-∆-prostaglandin J
- breast cancer
- cyclopentenone prostaglandin
- thiol modification
- α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group