2-arachidonyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamine induces anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages and in carrageenan-induced paw edema

Soo Jin Park, Dong Soon Im

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2-Arachidonyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamine, shortly 2-ARA-LPE, is a polyunsaturated lysophosphatidylethanolamine. 2-ARA-LPE has a very long chain arachidonic acid, formed by an ester bond at the sn-2 position. It has been reported that 2-ARA-LPE has anti-inflammatory effects in a zymosan-induced peritonitis model. However, it’s action mechanisms are poorly investigated. Recently, resolution of inflammation is considered to be an active process driven by M2 polarized macrophages. Therefore, we have investigated whether 2-ARA-LPE acts on macrophages for anti-inflammation, whether 2-ARA-LPE modulates macrophage phenotypes to reduce inflammation, and whether 2-ARA-LPE is anti-inflammatory in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, 2-ARA-LPE was found to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced M1 macrophage polarization, but not induce M2 polarization. 2-ARA-LPE inhibited the inductions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in mouse peritoneal macrophages at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, products of the two genes, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, were also inhibited by 2-ARA-LPE. However, 1-oleoyl-LPE did not show any activity on the macrophage polarization and inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory activity of 2-ARA-LPE was also verified in vivo in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model. 2-ARA-LPE inhibits LPS-induced M1 polarization, which contributes to anti-inflammation and suppresses the carrageenan-induced paw edema in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4865
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021


  • 2-arachidonyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamine
  • Edema
  • Inflammation
  • Lysolipid
  • Macrophage


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