A comprehensive review of recent advancements in cancer immunotherapy and generation of CAR T cell by CRISPR-Cas9

Md Al Saber, Partha Biswas, Dipta Dey, Md Abu Kaium, Md Aminul Islam, Miss Ismoth Ara Tripty, M. D. Hasanur Rahman, Tanjim Ishraq Rahaman, Md Yeaman Biswas, Priyanka Paul, Md Ataur Rahman, Md Nazmul Hasan, Bonglee Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The mechanisms involved in immune responses to cancer have been extensively studied for several decades, and considerable attention has been paid to harnessing the immune system’s therapeutic potential. Cancer immunotherapy has established itself as a promising new treatment option for a variety of cancer types. Various strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), adoptive T-cell cancer therapy and CAR T-cell therapy have gained prominence through immunotherapy. However, the full potential of cancer immunotherapy remains to be accomplished. In spite of having startling aspects, cancer immunotherapies have some difficulties including the inability to effectively target cancer antigens and the abnormalities in patients’ responses. With the advancement in technology, this system has changed the genome-based immunotherapy process in the human body including the generation of engineered T cells. Due to its high specificity, CRISPR-Cas9 has become a simple and flexible genome editing tool to target nearly any genomic locus. Recently, the CD19-mediated CAR T-cell (chimeric antigen receptor T cell) therapy has opened a new avenue for the treatment of human cancer, though low efficiency is a major drawback of this process. Thus, increasing the efficiency of the CAR T cell (engineered T cells that induce the chimeric antigen receptor) by using CRISPR-Cas9 technology could be a better weapon to fight against cancer. In this review, we have broadly focused on recent immunotherapeutic techniques against cancer and the use of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for the modification of the T cell, which can specifically recognize cancer cells and be used as immune-therapeutics against cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
JournalProcesses
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • CRISPR-Cas9
  • Cancer antigens
  • Cancer immunotherapy
  • Cancer vaccine
  • Engineered T cells

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