Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of auto-identification of the posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric landmarks using the cascade convolution neural network (CNN) algorithm and PA cephalogram images of a different quality from nationwide multiple centers nationwide. Methods: Of the 2798 PA cephalograms from 9 university hospitals, 2418 images (2075 training set and 343 validation set) were used to train the CNN algorithm for auto-identification of 16 PA cephalometric landmarks. Subsequently, 99 pretreatment images from the remaining 380 test set images were used to evaluate the accuracy of auto-identification of the CNN algorithm by comparing with the identification by a human examiner (gold standard) using V-Ceph 8.0 (Ostem, Seoul, South Korea). Pretreatment images were used to eliminate the effects of orthodontic bracket, tube and wire, surgical plate, and surgical screws. Paired t test was performed to compare the x- and y-coordinates of each landmark. The point-to-point error and the successful detection rate (range, within 2.0 mm) were calculated. Results: The number of landmarks without a significant difference between the location identified by the human examiner and by auto-identification by the CNN algorithm were 8 on the x-coordinate and 5 on the y-coordinate, respectively. The mean point-to-point error was 1.52 mm. The low point-to-point error (<1.0 mm) was observed at the left and right antegonion (0.96 mm and 0.99 mm, respectively) and the high point-to-point error (>2.0 mm) was observed at the maxillary right first molar root apex (2.18 mm). The mean successful detection rate of auto-identification was 83.3%. Conclusions: Cascade CNN algorithm for auto-identification of PA cephalometric landmarks showed a possibility of an effective alternative to manual identification.
|Journal||American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2022|