Active Transposition of Insertion Sequences in Prokaryotes: Insights from the Response of Deinococcus geothermalis to Oxidative Stress

Eunjung Shin, Qianying Ye, Sung Jae Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Bacterial genomes contain numerous insertion sequences (ISs) as transposable elements involved in actions such as the sequestration, transmission, mutation and activation of genes that can influence the responsive capacity of the organism to environmental challenges. To date, at least 30 IS families have been identified. In this review, we describe how certain ISs are transposed to carotenoid biosynthesis genes, such as phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase, when radiation-resistant Deinococcus geothermalis with a redox imbalance and a targeted gene disruption mutation is exposed to oxidative stressors, such as gamma-irradiation, dielectric bilayer discharge plasma and hydrogen peroxide. We also explain the genetic features of IS elements, spontaneous mutation and various stress responses, including nutrient limitation, and physicochemical and oxidative stress, associated with the active transposition of bacterial ISs. Based on the current knowledge, we posit that the redox signalling mechanism inducing IS transposition involves redox sensing and redox switching for the activation of transposase expression and its activity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number481
JournalAntioxidants
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

Keywords

  • Cystine importer
  • Deinococcus
  • Insertion sequence
  • Oxidative stress
  • Redox imbalance
  • Redox signalling
  • Transposition

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