Water distribution network (WDN) is a human-centered infrastructure that is indispensable for modern cities worldwide. In addition to optimizing the operation and management (O&M) of WDNs under the current state, water utilities should be able to manage uncertain and risk conditions for improving their O&M efficiency. Although the disintegration of large WDNs into permanent district metered areas (DMAs) is an O&M innovation based on water leakage monitoring and pressure management, its network redundancy and reliability diminish under anomalous conditions. Therefore, this study proposed a design and operation procedure to obtain optimal, self-adaptive DMA configurations for various plausible abnormal scenarios. The proposed method is based on multiscenario simulation and optimization, comprising two phases: (1) design of optimal DMA layout for each scenario using the pressure uniformity index to optimize the placement of flow meters and gate valves, and (2) dynamic transformation of the base DMA configuration into an adaptive DMA layout adapting to abnormal conditions and optimization of the locations and statuses of the control valves. Moreover, we used a real-world WDN to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and the obtained results revealed the efficiency and appropriate performance of the adaptive DMA layouts for sustainable adaptation of WDNs under anomalous conditions.
- adaptive design and operation
- district metered areas (DMAs)
- multi abnormal scenarios
- optimal valve settings
- water distribution networks
- water network partitioning