Anaerobic digestion (AD) serves as a potential bioconversion process to treat various organic wastes/wastewaters, including sewage sludge, and generate renewable green energy. Despite its efficiency, AD has several limitations that need to be overcome to achieve maximum energy recovery from organic materials while regulating inhibitory substances. Hence, bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have been widely investigated to treat inhibitory compounds including ammonia in AD processes and improve the AD operational efficiency, stability, and economic viability with various integrations. The BES operations as a pretreatment process, inside AD or after the AD process aids in the upgradation of biogas (CO2 to methane) and residual volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to valuable chemicals and fuels (alcohols) and even directly to electricity generation. This review presents a comprehensive summary of BES technologies and operations for overcoming the limitations of AD in lab-scale applications and suggests upscaling and future opportunities for BES-AD systems.
- Anaerobic digestion (AD)
- Bioelectrochemical systems (BES)
- Integration technology
- pH stability
- Resource recovery