Current strategies in the field of tissue engineering are bringing functional biomaterials with required structural, mechanical, and biological performance able to endorse the repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues. Biocomposites formed by biodegradable polymers matrix and bioceramics have proved their effectiveness in clinics, namely in orthopedics and dental medicine. They are being used as suture anchors and interference screws, while bioceramics are indicated as cements, blocks, granules, or as coatings for metal implants. The biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of the bioceramics together with the high mechanical properties provided by the polymers make them ideal candidates towards the designing of advanced scaffolds and implants. A comprehensive overview of recent research on bioceramics and bioceramics-related biocomposites for several tissue engineering purposes are herein presented. Bioceramics and biocomposites comprising bioinert, bioactive and bioresorbable ceramics, and natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers for scaffolds processing, and respective properties are demonstrated. Interest is given to advanced manufacturing as an emergent technology for complex personalized structures fabrication. Commercial bioceramics and biocomposites available for biomedical use are also summarized.