Blood pressure variability (BPV) is associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity risks; however, its association with cognitive decline remains unclear. We investigated whether higher BPV is associated with faster declines in cognitive function in ischemic stroke (IS) patients. Cognitive function was evaluated between April 2010 and August 2015 using the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment in 1,240 Korean PICASSO participants. Patients for whom baseline and follow-up cognitive test results and at least five valid BP readings were available were included. A restricted maximum likelihood–based Mixed Model for Repeated Measures was used to compare changes in cognitive function over time. Among a total of 746 participants (64.6 ± 10.8 years; 35.9% female). Baseline mean-MMSE score was 24.9 ± 4.7. The median number of BP readings was 11. During a mean follow-up of 2.6 years, mean baseline and last follow-up MMSE scores were 25.4 ± 4.8 vs. 27.8 ± 4.4 (the lowest BPV group) and 23.9 ± 5.2 vs. 23.2 ± 5.9 (the highest BPV group). After adjusting for multiple variables, higher BPV was independently associated with faster cognitive decline over time. However, no significant intergroup difference in cognitive changes associated with mean systolic BP was observed. Further research is needed to elucidate how BPV might affect cognitive function.