Our research team recently published two relevant papers. In one study, we have seen the acute effect of low-dose ionizing irradiation (LDIR) did not reduce the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein concentration in brain tissue, yet significantly improved synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Surprisingly, in another study, we could see late effect that the LDIR-treated mice showed significantly improved learning and memory skills compared with those in the sham group. In addition, Aβ concentrations were significantly decreased in brain tissue. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α was decreased and the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-β was increased in the brain tissue of 5xFAD mice treated with LDIR. Definitive clinical results for the safety and efficacy of LDIR have not yet been published and, despite the promising outcomes reported during preclinical studies, LDIR can only be applied to patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia when clinical results are made available. In addition, in the case of LDIR, additional large-scale clinical studies are necessary to determine the severity of Alzheimer's disease dementia, indications for LDIR, the total dose to be irradiated, fraction size, and intervals of LDIR treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the mechanism of LDIR based on existing preclinical results in a way that is useful for conducting subsequent clinical research.
- Alzheimer's disease
- Clinical research
- Cognitive function
- Low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR)