Immunoglobulins and transcription factors in Otitis media

Su Young Jung, Dokyoung Kim, Dong Choon Park, Eun Hye Lee, Yong Sung Choi, Jeewon Ryu, Sang Hoon Kim, Seung Geun Yeo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The causes of otitis media (OM) involve bacterial and viral infection, anatomo-physiolog-ical abnormalities of the Eustachian canal and nasopharynx, allergic rhinitis, group childcare cen-ters, second-hand smoking, obesity, immaturity and defects of the immune system, formula feeding, sex, race, and age. OM is accompanied by complex and diverse interactions among bacteria, viruses, inflammatory cells, immune cells, and epithelial cells. The present study summarizes the antibodies that contribute to immune reactions in all types of otitis media, including acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, as well as the transcription factors that induce the production of these antibodies. The types and distribution of B cells; the functions of B cells, especially in otorhinolaryngology; antibody formation in patients with otitis media; and antibodies and related transcription factors are described. B cells have important functions in host defenses, including antigen recognition, antigen presentation, antibody production, and immunomodulation. The phenotypes of B cells in the ear, nose, and throat, especially in patients with otitis media, were shown to be CD5low, CD23high, CD43low, B220high, sIg Mlow, sIgDhigh, Mac-1low, CD80(B7.1)low, CD86(B7.2)low, and Syndecam-1low. Of the five major classes of immunoglobulins pro-duced by B cells, three (IgG, IgA, and IgM) are mainly involved in otitis media. Serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgM are lower in patients with OM with effusion (OME) than in subjects without otitis media. Moreover, IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations in the middle ear cavity are increased during immune responses in patients with otitis media. B cell leukemia/lymphoma-6 (Bcl-6) and paired box gene 5 (Pax-5) suppress antibody production, whereas B lymphocyte inducer of maturation program 1 (Blimp-1) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) promote antibody production during immune responses in patients with otitis media.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3201
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2 Mar 2021


  • Acute otitis media
  • Antibody
  • Chronic otitis media
  • Immu-noglobulin
  • Otitis media
  • Otitis media with effusion


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