Background: Periodontitis (PT) is a multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disease that can have heterogeneous clinical presentations. The oral microbiome and its metabolites have been implicated as the causes and regulators of PT pathogenesis. In this study, we assessed the oral microbiome and its metabolome in PT patients to clarify the interactions between the microbiome and its metabolites.Methods: A total of 112 subjects were recruited. Buccal and supragingival samples were collected for microbiome analysis. Saliva samples were collected for metabolomic analyses. Microbiome and metabolome data were analyzed and further integrated for combined analysis using various bioinformatics approaches.Results: Oral metabolomic analysis identified 28 metabolites distinguishing the healthy (H) and PT groups. PT group were further clustered into two subgroups (PT_G1 and PT_G2) depending on metabolite profiles. Oral microbiome analysis revealed discriminatory bacterial species in the H, PT_G1, and PT_G2 microbiota. Interestingly, PT_G2 had significantly higher concentration of short chain fatty acids and higher abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Integrated analysis of the microbiome and metabolome showed close association.Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of a close interplay between the oral microbiome and metabolome. Multi-omics approach including microbiome and microbe-associated metabolites may serve as diagnostic biomarkers and enhance treatment prediction in periodontal disease.
- oral microbiome