Purpose: To examine the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity (SO) and its association with nutrition and lifestyle factors. Methods: Data from the 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 3937 Korean individuals aged 40 years or older with obesity defined by the modified Asia–Pacific criteria (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) were used. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (%) of < 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Logistic regression models were used for the associations controlling covariates. Results: The prevalence of SO was 52.5%. The SO group had insufficient energy intake, protein, and antioxidant micronutrients, a lower overall dietary quality, a lower physical activity, and higher rates of negative psychological factors than the non-sarcopenic obesity group (p < 0.05). After controlling for covariates, having high mean adequacy ratio scores which was calculated by averaging the sum of the nutrient adequacy ratios had a 94% lower prevalence of SO in the older individuals. Low participation in aerobic exercises had a 74% higher prevalence of SO in the older aged group, and high participation in flexibility exercises had a 11% lower prevalence of SO in the middle-aged group. Interestingly, negative psychological factors were found only in the middle-aged adults with SO (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Sarcopenia was present in over half of the middle-aged and older Korean adults with obesity. Having high dietary quality, increased physical activity, and positive psychological health were associated with a low prevalence of SO.
- Dietary qualities
- Sarcopenic obesity