Trends in Fast-Food and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Their Association with Social Environmental Status in South Korea

Hyunjung Lim, Hae Jeoung Lee, Ryowon Choue, Youfa Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: As South Korea has enjoyed rapid economic development, Koreans’ diet, particularly consumption of fast food (FF) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), has changed. Objective: To examine time trends in FF and SSB consumption and their associations with social environmental status (SEnS) in South Korea. Design: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) were a series of population-based cross-sectional surveys. Participants: Data from the KNHANES conducted in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007-2009 for 49,826 Koreans aged ≥1 year were used. Main outcome measures: Consumption of FF and SSBs were assessed by a 24-hour recall. We defined two FF categories (Western-style and Korean-style) and one SSB category. Sex, age, household income, and residence regions were investigated. Statistical analyses performed: The primary sampling units, strata, and sampling weights were taken into account using SAS survey-related procedures. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between SEnS and FF consumption. Results: Over an 11-year period, the proportion of participants’ who consumed Western FF and SSBs on the surveyed day doubled (P<0.05). Per capita energy contribution from Western FF also increased in adults, men, and low-income groups. SSB consumption doubled (per capita: 32 to 82 kcal/day, only consumers: 123 to 166 kcal/day), but consumption of Korean-style FF decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the low-income rural resident group, the high-income urban resident group was much more likely to consume Western FF (OR=26.7[3.7, 193.4]) and SSBs (odds ratio [OR]=3.1 [2.4, 4.1]) in 1998. However, in recent years, the patterns changed; the high-income urban resident group was more likely to consume Korean-style FF (OR=2.0[1.3, 2.9]) and SSBs (OR=1.7[1.3, 2.1]). Conclusions: In South Korea, people who reported consuming Western FF and SSBs on the surveyed day almost doubled during 1998-2009, whereas those who consumed Korean FF decreased. SEnS was related to FF and SSB consumption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1228-1236.e1
JournalJournal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume118
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018

Keywords

  • Fast food
  • Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
  • Social environmental status
  • South Korea
  • Sugar-sweetened beverages

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